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Effective responses follow internationally agreed standard and protocols for safety, mitigation, preparedness and prevention.  Useful points of reference include:

The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation

is the international instrument that provides a framework to facilitate international co-operation and assistance in preparing for and responding to major oil pollution incidents.  

The Global Initiative
An umbrella organization involving governments and industry representatives

This is the global oil and gas industry association for environmental and social issues. The IPIECA Oil spill report series provides a practical and accessible overview of the issues relevant to preparing for, and responding to oil spills at sea.

The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation
ITOPF is a not-for-profit organisation established on behalf of the world’s ship owners to promote an effective response to marine spills of oil, chemicals and other hazardous substances. It provides an overview of the techniques associated with oil spill clean ups and maintains a database on major accidental, maritime oil spills since 1967.

International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds
IOPC Funds are three intergovernmental organisations (the 1971 Fund, the 1992 Fund and the Supplementary Fund) which provide compensation for oil pollution damage resulting from spills of persistent oil from tankers.

International Association of Oil and Gas Producers
Drawing upon lessons learned from the Deepwater Horizon spill, the OGP published Oil Spill Response: Global Industry Response Group recommendations in May 2011.

This is the Office of Response and Restoration of the US Government National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Pew Charitable Trust
In 2010, the Pew Environment Group commissioned a comprehensive study of the challenges and potential consequences of oil and gas exploration and production in the U.S. Arctic Ocean.


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